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Publication type: Article in scientific journal
Type of review: Peer review (publication)
Title: Influence of two anti-fungal Lactobacillus fermentum-Saccharomyces cerevisiae co-cultures on cocoa bean fermentation and final bean quality
Authors: Romanens, Edwina
Pedan, Vasilisa
Meile, Leo
Miescher Schwenninger, Susanne
et. al: No
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0239365
Published in: PLOS ONE
Volume(Issue): 15
Issue: 10
Pages: e0239365
Issue Date: 1-Oct-2020
Publisher / Ed. Institution: Public Library of Science
ISSN: 1932-6203
Language: English
Subject (DDC): 664: Food technology
Abstract: The growth of filamentous fungi during the spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation leads to inferior cocoa bean quality and poses a health risk for consumers due to the potential accumulation of mycotoxins. We recently developed anti-fungal cultures with the capacity to inhibit the growth of mycotoxigenic filamentous fungi on cocoa beans. However, it is not clear how these anti-fungal cultures affect the fermentation process and cocoa bean quality. For that, the anti-fungal co-cultures, Lactobacillus fermentum M017-Saccharomyces cerevisiae H290 (A) and Lb. fermentum 223-S. cerevisiae H290 (B), were applied to 180-kg box fermentations in Honduras in three time-independent replications each including a spontaneous control fermentation. The comparison of inoculated and spontaneous fermentation processes revealed that the co-cultures only arginally affected the fermentation process and cocoa bean quality. Microorganisms reached maximal levels of 6.2–7.6 log CFU/g of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria and 7.9–9.5 log CFU/g of lactic acid bacteria during all fermentations and led to maximal metabolite concentrations in bean cotyledons of 4–12 mg/g ethanol, 2–6 mg/g lactic acid and 6–14 mg/g acetic acid. The fermentation and drying processes resulted in 38–90 mg epicatechin equivalents/g in the cotyledons of dried beans. However, the co-cultures led to up to ten times higher mannitol levels in cotyledons of inoculated beans compared to beans during spontaneous fermentation, and caused a slower fermentation process, detectable as up to 8–12 ˚C lower temperatures in the centre of the fermenting pulp-bean mass and up to 22% lower proportions of well-fermented beans after drying. Co-culture B–with Lb. fermentum 223 –led to improved cocoa bean quality compared to co-culture A–with Lb. fermentum M017 –, i.e. cocoa beans with 0.5–1.9 mg/g less acetic acid, 4–17% higher shares of well-fermented beans and, on a scale from 0 to 10, to 0.2–0.6 units lower astringency, up to 1.1 units lower off-flavours, and 0.2–0.9 units higher cocoa notes. Therefore, the anti-fungal co-culture B is recommended for future applications and its capacity to limit fungal growth and mycotoxin production during industrial-scale cocoa bean fermentation hould be investigated in further studies.
Fulltext version: Published version
License (according to publishing contract): CC BY 4.0: Attribution 4.0 International
Departement: Life Sciences and Facility Management
Organisational Unit: Institute of Food and Beverage Innovation (ILGI)
Published as part of the ZHAW project: Entwicklung antifungaler Schutzkulturen für die Kakaobohnenfermentation
Appears in collections:Publikationen Life Sciences und Facility Management

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